Social anxiety disorder, causes, signs and symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.

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Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by sentiments of fear and anxiety in social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some aspects of daily life. [2]: 15 These fears can be triggered by perceived or actual scrutiny from others. Social anxiety disorder sufferers fear being judged negatively by others.

Excessive blushing, excessive sweating, trembling and palpitations are all common physical symptoms. Rapid speech and possibly some Stammering could be signs. Panic attacks can also be caused by extreme fear or discomfort. To reduce their fear and inhibitions during social events, some sufferers might resort to alcohol or other drugs. Social phobia sufferers may self-medicate by using alcohol or other drugs, particularly if they are not diagnosed or treated. This can lead to an eating disorder, alcohol abuse disorder, or any other type of substance abuse disorders. SAD can sometimes be called an illness of lost chances, where individuals make major life decisions to address their illness. [3][4] According to ICD-10 guidelines, the main diagnostic criteria of social phobia are fear of being the focus of attention, or fear of behaving in a way that will be embarrassing or humiliating, avoidance and anxiety symptoms. [5] Standardized rating systems can be used to screen and measure anxiety severity.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the first line of treatment for social anxious disorder. [6] SSRIs, particularly paroxetine, are effective in treating social phobia. [7] CBT can be used to treat this disorder. It is effective whether it is delivered in an individual setting or in a group. [8] Cognitive and behavioral components aim to alter thought patterns and physical reactions in anxiety-inducing situations. With the marketing and approval of medications for treatment, social anxiety disorder has received a lot more attention than 1999. Prescribed medications include several classes of antidepressants: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). [9] Beta blockers and benzodiazepines are also common medications.

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